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Pawn Structure Classification Code (PSCC): 4a-0



  • "Preston Ware, an American chess player, frequently played this opening which now bears his name. The Ware Opening is also sometimes referred to as the Meadow Hay Opening. Irrelevant rook pawn moves to the third rank ,but also sometimes the fourth, are sometimes called “country moves. This 'country move' on move number one might explain the alternative name: Meadow Hay Opening."
  • "The 'Meadow Hay' is an invention of Mr. Preston Ware, of Boston. Its first move to P-QR4 for either attack or defense. Mr. Steinitz game it some passing attention in 1878, and pronounced its irregularity more manifest than its value, and said that it is not likely to supersede the debuts of the middle Pawns, which free the actions of the Queens and Bishops. When it is remembered, he remarked, that there are actually over 400 different ways of starting the game on both sides, on the first move only, without proceeding further, it would occasion no surprise that originality is sometimes applied to the very first move, and strange openings are thus introduced. Mr. Ware has played the 'Meadow Hay' at Chess Congresses in Europe and America, and proved it to possess considerable strength among the irregular openings" (Cook, p. 247).

Computer Analysis

  1. [30] –0.15: 1...e6 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.e3 Be7 4.Be2 c5 5.0–0 0–0 6.d4 d5 7.dxc5 Bxc5 8.b3 b6 9.Na3 Bb7 10.Bb2 Nbd7 11.c4 Rc8 12.cxd5 Nxd5 13.Rc1 Qe7 14.Nb5 a6 15.Nc3 Nb4 16.h4 e5 ;
  2. [30] –0.11: 1...Nf6 2.d4 e6 3.Bf4 Be7 4.e3 0–0 5.Nd2 d5 6.c3 b6 7.Ngf3 c5 8.Be2 Nc6 9.0–0 Bb7 10.Ne5 Rc8 11.h3 Na5 12.Re1 c4 13.Qc2 Bd6 14.b4 cxb3 15.Nxb3 Nxb3 16.Qxb3;
  3. [30] –0.10: 1...d5 2.d4 Nf6 3.Bf4 e6 4.Nf3 Be7 5.Nbd2 0–0 6.e3 b6 7.h3 c5 8.Be2 Bb7 9.Ne5 Nc6 10.Nxc6 Bxc6 11.0–0 Bd6 12.Bxd6 Qxd6 13.c3 Rfe8 14.b3 h6 15.Nf3 Rac8 16.Qc2 Kh8;
  4. [30] –0.08: 1...Nc6 2.d4 d5 3.Nf3 Bf5 4.e3 a6 5.Bd3 Bxd3 6.cxd3 e6 7.0–0 Bb4 8.Bd2 Nge7 9.Bxb4 Nxb4 10.Nc3 0–0 11.Rc1 Nec6 12.h3 a5 13.b3 h6 14.Ne2 Qe7 15.Qd2 Rfd8 16.Rfe1 b6;
  5. [30] –0.08: 1...e5 2.e4 Nf6 3.Nc3 Bc5 4.Bc4 d6 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.h3 0–0 7.d3 Be6 8.b3 Bb4 9.Bd2 Nd4 10.Bxe6 Nxe6 11.0–0 c6 12.Ne2 Bxd2 13.Qxd2 Qc7 14.Ng5 Nxg5 15.Qxg5 d5 16.f4 Qb6+ 17.Kh2 dxe4 18.dxe4 Nxe4;
  6. [29] –0.03: 1...h6 2.d4 Nf6 3.e3 e6 4.Nf3 d5 5.Bb5+ c6 6.Bd3 c5 7.0–0 Nc6 8.b3 Bd6 9.dxc5 Bxc5 10.Ba3 Bxa3 11.Nxa3 0–0 12.c4 Bd7 13.Nb5 a6 14.Nbd4 Rc8 15.Qb1 Qc7 16.h3 dxc4 17.bxc4;
  7. [29] 0.00: 1...a6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nf3 d5 4.c4 e6 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.Bg5 Nc6 7.e3 0–0 8.Be2 h6 9.Bxf6 Qxf6 10.0–0 dxc4 11.Bxc4 Bd7 12.Na2 Bd6 13.Nc3 Qe7 14.Rc1 Rfd8 15.Ne4 Bb4 16.Bd3;


  • 1...b5 (Wing Gambit, Ware Opening)
  • 1...b6
  • 1...e5
  • 1...f5
Image:chess zhor 26.png
Image:chess zver 26.png a8 rd b8 nd c8 bd d8 qd e8 kd f8 bd g8 nd h8 rd Image:chess zver 26.png
a7 pd b7 pd c7 pd d7 pd e7 pd f7 pd g7 pd h7 pd
a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6
a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5
a4 pl b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4
a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3
a2 b2 pl c2 pl d2 pl e2 pl f2 pl g2 pl h2 pl
a1 rl b1 nl c1 bl d1 ql e1 kl f1 bl g1 nl h1 rl
Image:chess zhor 26.png
Ware Opening
Image:Chess_zver_27_2.PNG a8 rl b8 nl c8 bl d8 kl e8 ql f8 bl g8 nl h8 rl Image:Chess_zver_27_2.PNG
a7 pl b7 pl c7 pl d7 pl e7 pl f7 pl g7 pl h7
a6 b6 c6 d6 e6 f6 g6 h6
a5 b5 c5 d5 e5 f5 g5 h5 pl
a4 b4 c4 d4 e4 f4 g4 h4
a3 b3 c3 d3 e3 f3 g3 h3
a2 pd b2 pd c2 pd d2 pd e2 pd f2 pd g2 pd h2 pd
a1 rd b1 nd c1 bd d1 kd e1 qd f1 bd g1 nd h1 rd
Ware Opening


Chess Program

DroidFish w/ Stockfish Six (6)


"DroidFish is an Android port of the very strong Stockfish chess engine, combined with a feature-rich GUI."


  1. Cook, William. Synopsis of Chess Openings: A Tabular Analysis. CINCINNATI: ROBERT CLARKE & CO., (1884).
  2. Danelishen, Gary (2008), The Final Theory of Chess, Phillidor Press, ISBN 978-0981567709
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